Best 10 Landscape photography tips to get you started

top 10 tips for landscape photography

We see before how to use composition and rule of thirds to capture a perfect photos, while In this photography lesson we are going over 10 landscape photography tips; because last week, I was doing landscape photography and from editing those lessons kind of got these 10 tips that I thought we can share with you to help you with your own landscape.

I am going to run through them, and have explained them a little bit more...



Tips number one is to shoot right around sunrise or sunset, because it’s when you have the most dramatic light as opposed to toppi light, and there’s a lot of contrast during those times as well as the colors and the sun coming through the atmosphere.

Also, before and after the sun coming up or going down, you have this really beautiful soft light, so in a matter of an hour, you can go from contrast direct beautiful gold light to really soft nice lighting. So it is kind of the best time to be shooting and get a range of photos.



Tip number two is to think about adding foreground elements to your photos and not just bid wide open landscapes; So it gives you perspective and depth of what you are actually looking at, also it gives you reference and the audience reference.

So that dynamic in any photo really helps you, where you have to think of your foreground, main subject, and your background, because it is all important to have when you doing landscape.



This one can go either way, so for beginners I would say that the tip is if you are trying to get more in focus, so just increase your depth by closing down your aperture, but we also talk about playing around with shallow of field, but in general for landscapes what I got was increasing your depth of field.


Maybe you want your horizon to be a little crooked but you need to make that decision while taking the photo and really trying to pay attention to your left and right sides of your horizon.


Use a tripod in landscape

If you are doing a long exposure use a Camera tripod.

I think it is really impossible to do it without a tripod, you can set up on rocks and get creative with it, or use your backpack or something, but a tripod is ultimately the best.

it is nice to have a tripod in general because you know you can sort of set your frame and really spend the time looking through it and not holding it, sometimes you shoot with along heavy telephoto lens, or whatever it is and it’s kind of nice to have, but I think it depends on your circumstance.

So the tip would be to get more creative shots bring in the filters and a tripod and test it out .


See where ever you going there is a specific location you should be at or at that time of the year if there is a special thing happening.



If you want to make your skies pop, use a polarized filter.
Polarizer undoubtedly there’s a reason the pro photographers use them and really there’s tons of filters and filtration, that in today’s day and age you can just use digital, but there is something to be said about using glass and about doing it off your Digital SLR camera and having a great photo with any editing in post.



Try out different photography lenses, don’t just go for the wide shot but also bring a telephoto.
So that comes down to what is in your kit, and we have a lot of question about what is the right lens, so I think that you can really make any lens work for any occasion, sometimes it just depends on your personal preference.



This tip is really important especially during sunrise or sunset.

If you taking photos it is not always just about what’s in front of you, but you really have to be searching constantly, getting low, getting high, spinning around 360, because you always going to find something that you kind of expected or anticipated or known was going to be there.

So if you shoot the sun, make sure you turn around and look at what’s happening behind you with the light.



We are talking about using a lot of negative space, but also going through our photos afterwards some of the ones that I personally like the best were where we found a single object as a single tree, rock or something, and kind of had a more single photo rather than it being too busy.

it is a style too when you are out there and you see something and you feel connected by it or you see something simple, that will come across your photography, and that is a kind of an art.

Those was our 10 tips for landscape photography, and the biggest takeaway is being out there and taking photos and not being under pressure, so just enjoying it and getting to play with things, try different things, because it is the only way to learn.

in the next lesson, we will take a look into 5 Tips for better nature photos.
5 Tips for better nature photos

Guide to Composition Photography And Rule of Thirds - What’s in your frame

learn everything about composition photography

In the previous lesson we learn how to capture a clear crisp photos at night, while In todays Photography lesson, I will go over a lot of great things that will help take your photos to the next level. So We’ll be covering things like what is composition, some basic rules of composition like the rule of thirds, when to throw out the rule of thirds, and how to use negative space and symmetry in your photos. We’ll also be talking about how to change your perspective and how that really takes you to the next level. We’ll also be talking about things like choosing your background, choosing colors when to choose black and white, how to position your subject, and all things related to composition.

What is Composition :

Composition is a simple question « What is inside your Digital slr camera frame  and how are you framing your subject », so there is a couple of key things here and throughout this section we’ll be going over the difference of rules that people have come up with and when you can break them, and when you want to use them.

The main thing here is to look through your viewfinder and decide what is your subject? Are they going to be small in the frame ? are they going to be very present in the frame ? How do you frame the things that are in the background in with them? Or are there multiple subjects?

It’s really a fun part our lesson because it’s taking photos, it’s deciding what do you want your photo to be of. So for me personally i look through the camera lens and I decide « Okay, I’m taking a picture of that person » and when I look at that person, I said well « what’s on the left side of frame, what’s in that left corner, what’s in the bottom right corner ? » and I really make a decision on all those different sections and come up with my photo ; So for this it’s best to not just «  i am here, so I m going to take a photo to them » it does not work like this, because maybe you don’t want that building behind them, maybe you need to across the street to get that photo, maybe you wnat them to turn around and get better lighting on their face.

What is the rule of thirds :

The rule of thirds (Wikipedia link) is really there to help you frame your subjects in a way that they’re not always dead center but they’re also not touching the side of your frame too much.

real example of rule of thirds in photography

As you can see in this shot above, the subject is currently on the left side of the frame, it is not too far to the left but also not dead center ; And in this way it adds a nice look to it because it allows you to have another subject there, maybe a wall or car or trees which also make the subject have a little headroom and without putting the head in dead center in the frame.

The Rule:

  • Placing subjects at « the third » of an image
  • Don’t place subjects in the middle of your frame.

Rule 1 is a general rule of thumb but it’s not something you have to follow. This again is a decision that a lot of photographers have said « Oh, well, sing the third lines is really helpful, because it keeps my images from being perfectly symmetrical but also prevents it from being too much space to the left, right, bellow, and above » So it is just a sort of happy medium of the third lines.

When looking at the rule of thirds, there’s a lot of different ways that you can do this, whether it’s with portrait photography, landscape photography, really any type of photo you can use the rule of thirds.

Rule of thirds examples :

Here I will show you some of my favorite photos so that you can really see how the rule of thirds comes into play. And you might even not notice this when you’re looking at photos on a day-to-day basis, but start looking at photos and see how a lot of photos are composed this way.

1.Dandelion :

dandelion example rule of thirds

this is a great example of how to use the rule of thirds, and place the subject not anywhere on the third line but at the intersection of vertical and horizontal lines. That’s really getting down to the nitty-gritty of the rule of thirds, but that sweet spot is placing a subject and the focal point of your photo at that intersection, and it does not have to be the top left or top right intersection like you might see in a standard portrait, but you could put it on the bottom left or right and I think this is a great example.

2. Castle

second example about rule of third castle

This is another non-human photo, but it is a great composition of using the rule of thirds, we have this castle on the right side of the image that is really the focal point of the photo and your eyes are drawn to it. As you can see, Again it’s on the third line.


last example about rule of thirds

Here we have a child that is semi-centered, semi to the left of the frame, and I would say and you might argue that if the photo was a little bit shot to the right and that the child was a little bit more to the left, it might be a little bit more dynamic, and if it was on the third line it could have been a little bit more dynamic as well, but nonetheless great shot and the child is sort of leaning over towards that third line.

When to throw out the rule of thirds :

So now we’ve learned what the rule of thirds is, and how to use it, let’s talk about not using it, and the different way that you can’t frame things when you don’t really need to use it, or you don’t want to use it.

When it comes to breaking the rule of thirds, I often find my self-looking at either wanting to shoot a more symmetrical image « where you have everything be very on the crosshairs », or the other one is using negative space « where you have a lot of headroom, and having your subject very small in the frame ».

shooting a symmetrical buidling
Symmetrical shape
There is a lot of ways that you can use that, and although the rule of thirds is really there to help you, then try to giving a little extra to the headroom, try taking away the headroom, or just try the symmetrical shot. It’s actually pretty difficult to find perfect symmetry when shooting on the street because things don’t always line up, but that doesn’t mean that you can’t use those other things; And start framing your subjects with inside of frames with inside of frames ; And its a whole another way to look at photography, and really I think some really incredible photos have come from that.

example of negative spaces
Negative space
So you can break the rule of thirds when :

  • Use negative space or center subjects
  • Using lines in your composition (framing frames in a frame)

So, Go and give it a shot, try negative space, try symmetry and can’t wait to see what you guys come up with.

In the next lesson we will see how to change the angle of shooting to unlock the creative power of composition.

Night Photography the secret sauce finally revealed

master how to do night photography

One of my favorite types of photography is night photography, it is slightly different than low light photography that we already cover in the previous lesson, so there is quite a bit of skill but also a lot of experimentation that comes with this.

Let’s say it’s a pitch-black night and you can’t even see what you’re trying to take a photo of , but you know that there is something there. There’s a couple of things you will need, which I will list below and we will talk about each one of them.

First thing is a DSLR tripod or some sort of stabilization where you can click that photo button and not move the camera at all because the second you move the camera is when you get blurring, and you don’t get a clean image.

Again do what you want to do, but for me to get that clean image I prefer a tripod.

A second thing you need to do is having a long exposure, meaning your shutter need to be close to 1 second (Yes seriously like one second or more) or 10 seconds exposure, even 30-second exposure. This is something I find my self-doing constantly.

The next thing, you have to know what you’re taking the image of, if there are lights in your photo then you’re actually maybe going to need to close down your iris, maybe go for f2 so that as you do that long exposure there will be not too much light coming through your lens, and ultimately you have to test, even in the moment of taking the photo you want to take, you should just try a « 30-second exposure, f5.6 with ISO 400 » and if it’s really bright, which sometimes it will be which is sort of surprising because I will be pitch black outside, you then know «  Oh, I should go to ISO 100 » and maybe 30sec exposures too long, maybe try 20sec exposure, but what you’re able to do with this is :
  • See the starts
  • All car lights (any moving light, airplane lights will become streaks of light covering your entire image) 
  • Any people or water moving will come very blurred, and it can look very nice and it’s something to experiment with.
water blur

Another key element to this though is if you can’t see what you’re taking a photo through your viewfinder, you will need to take that photo to know what your frame is. A few things that I typically watch out for are where cars are because a lot of times cars actually have a really cool streaks, but if you do it for only a second you’ll have a small streak while if you do it for 5 seconds, you’ll have a long streak, and if you do it for 30 seconds maybe you’ll have a few cars passing and you’ll get different colors of streaks which are really cool in my mind.

The other cool thing you can do is look at the stars and really expose for the starts, try to bring them out a little bit more, but also be wary that if you have a city lights in your image those will affect you because they’re a lot brighter than the stars are.

city light effect at night photography

Why you need a prime lens to do low light photography :

I always recommend a prime lens for low light photography, because those lenses can go to closer to f1.4 even f2, so that is twice or quadruple the amount of light.

Easy to follow Method to do night photography:

So to recap what we were talking about, and for you have an easy to follow method, I create for you this step by step night photography method:
A. Open up the f-stop (most open up, to allow the most lights possible) and see what amount of light you have.
B. Shutter speed: Start as high as possible like 1/100 or even 1/600, if you want motion blurred go under that; If you have a tripod you can go under that also, but anything moving will get a little blur at around 130th 150th
C. ISO: First you need to know what your cameras are capable of handling, then take it out and shooting some tests to see what are the sweets numbers.

Method for doing night photography

Finally, all I can say for this is go experiment, go and see what’s possible and be sure to bring some friends, maybe some hot chocolate, a warm jacket because a lot of times it gets cold at night. And you will find your self-doing this for few hours, I know that I do, and enjoy.
Composition and rule of thirds will be the talk of our next lesson.

Master the art of low light photography

learn how to take clear picture in low light condition

Shooting in low light is a photography skill that you must to master because on many occasion the photographer can found itself in a low light environment, while he/she need to take photos, but to do that you must first learn how to manually adjust your setting as we show in the previous article.

Let’s say the sun started to set and you start to run out of light, Or you’re shooting in your house and you only have as many lights as they're available.

Here, There are 3 solutions  you can try, Which are :
1. Open your Aperture
2. Slow down your Shutter
3. Increase the ISO

3 key elements of successful low light condition
Use this image in Pinterest

So the first thing to try is to open up the f-stop; Now if you are not comfortable with it being too shallow of a depth of field, try setting it at 2.8 first.

From there you go to your shutter speed, and slowing down is really the most importing thing to do, but if you go below 1/60th you should know that you’re going to start to get some blur in your image, so the solution is to start at 1/60th.

Then, you move to the ISO, so it is important to know how sensitive can your camera go before you start to get too much grain. And this is really all about testing because you won’t know until you put it on your computer and you see what it actually looks like.

Note: Opening iris Mean = Lower number = Large opening = More light.

Now as not to say that you shouldn’t go to higher ISO or you shouldn’t go to 1/8th shutter speed or something slower than 1/60th, it’s just that you need to practice, you need to see what it look like and decide as a photographer do you like that look? Do you like it when it has that grain, do you like it with that shallow depth of field, or do you like a little bit blur.

Maybe your father’s really animated and moving his arms, and you take a photo and he’s still crisp but his arms are blurry and that might be something you are looking to do, and as you become more experience you will be able to know as «  Oh I remember taking that one photo when I was in that low lighting situation and now in a similar situation and I want to replicate that same look » and you will know the setting to go for achieving that look.

Remember when it comes to low light Photography, the three things you need to do are bring up your ISO, make your sensor more sensitive, bring your shutter speed to a slower rate so it’s closer to 1/60th or even less than that. And Open up your aperture by going to a lower number, the lowest possible most likely, so that you have as much light coming in as possible.

Go out there and practice in the low lighting and it’s all about your creativity ultimately.

In the Next Lessons, we will learn how to shot in the deep dark nights as a pro Photographer.

Discover 8 Hidden Benefits of Kit Lens

This article will clarify why you should start photography with a kit lens, and how to make it very useful, and one of your lenses arsenal.

Once you buy a new DSLR or Mirrorless camera, you will immediately begin searching for additional Camera Accessories and lenses, after all, what good is an interchangeable lens camera without additional lenses dinner change.

It seems that there's a ton of folks on the web that post camera reviews, these folks all seem to agree that the kit lens is GARBAGE, it's TERRIBLE it's like you have to have a bag over your head to go out and actually snap a picture in public with the kit lens.

In the film days’ light passed through the lens, and was captured by the Film, what you got was what you got, so the lenses had to be right; If there were problems with the final print the engineers had to go back and fix the lens regardless of the cost.

Today the light passes through the lens and is captured by the camera's sensor, the sensor information is processed by the cameras tiny onboard computer, and saved in a memory card, these are then transferred to your computer where they can be further processed and manipulated in software like iPhoto, Lightroom, and Photoshop, so engineers can now look at a problem in an image and ask: "Is it most cost-effective to fix this problem in the lens? the cameras processor? or in post-production?"

In today's digital world, your skills in post-production software have become more important than the quality of your gear in most cases, so what are the benefits of shooting with this kit lens:

1- The Low Price of the Kit Lens:

Just 150 dollars gets you up and running with your new camera, you can try out its features, get familiar with its menus, and its settings.

2- The Size:

This Kit lens collapses when you turn the camera off, making it really easy to carry or store in a purse or bag.

3- Four Lenses inside one Lens:

The kit lens is a zoom lens, so you have at least four lenses in one:
At 16 millimeters - you have a wide-angle lens, this is great for landscapes and interior shots.
At around 22 millimeters - you can take great group shots of family and friends.
At 35 millimeters - you have a normal lens, which mimics what your eye sees naturally.
Then at 50 millimeters - you have a portrait lens, which lets you take close portraits while maintaining a comfortable distance from your subjects.

Read Also: 35mm Lens vs 50mm Lens

4- Photo Meta-Data:

After you've shot for a while with your kit lens, make a folder of shots, that you consider being keepers, then look at the metadata, using a photo software as Photoshop and ask yourself:
Did I shoot a lot at one particular focal length? then consider getting a prime lens for that length.
Do I have a lot of shots that are taken wide open? then maybe you'll need a faster lens.
Am I having a lot of shots where the lens was extended to its full 50 millimeters? then you were using the cameras digital zoom feature so you may want to consider a longer lens as 55-200mm Lens.
Am I having to crop into your macro shots? then you may need an dedicated macro lens, that allows you to focus within a few inches of your subject.
Do I do a lot of handheld videos or low-light photographs? Then you'll want lenses that have internal stabilization VR.

5- Poster size prints:

The kit lens gives you an opportunity to see how you're going to view or share your prints, if you want to do gallery quality wall prints, you'll likely want the Good Quality Glasses, but be advised Photoshop has features that allow you to make great poster size prints from even cell phone images, so check out that Photography software before you spend too much.


If you end up viewing most of your pictures on your cell phone or laptop, then the kit lens will be more than adequate.

6- Slower higher f-stop:

The kit lenses generate greater depth of field, so you discard fewer shots.

7- You don't need a Tripod or a backpack:

Kit lens size is small, Light, and compact, so you don't need a tripod to handle the camera while shooting, also you don't need a big backpack to take all your stuff while you travel, but a small photography hand case will do the job.

8- What to Do? Lens

My final reason to use the kit lens, is it gives you some coverage where you try other lenses, so imagine you buy or rent a new lens, then you don't like it, so you can switch back to the kit lens and finish your shooting.

I'm noticing more and more people on the sites and groups that I frequent coming forward with great pictures and admitting: "I took this with the kit lens".

Some Comments:

If you simply relax and enjoy these seven benefits of your kit lens I guarantee you'll enjoy your photography more, and you'll take better pictures, and then if when you do buy additional lenses, you can confidently buy those lenses, knowing that they're going to be right for you.

Buy Additional Lenses:

Please In the Top Menu, we have a category called Lenses, you will found there 18+ lenses for each DSLR camera from Nikon D3100 to Sony a6500

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Understand What is Focus, Automatic & Manual Focus and how to use them

Understand What is Focus, Automatic & Manual Focus and how to use them

Now we learn along this course the basics and history of cameras, also the whole exposure game and the exposure triangle, the next step is to get focus, so it is not about what is clear sharp or crisped in your image, but it’s also what’s out of focus and how does it fall out of focus.


When it comes to focusing there is two main things that affect your focus plane, or what is in focus and what is out of focus:

1. The F-Stop: 
we’ve already talked about, it is how much light coming in and how shallow the depth of field do you have.
2. The Lens:
A telephoto lens (long lens) will have less thing on focus, and that you”re really honing in on a single object and making that one thing be the focus of your image. On the other hand, you have a Wide-Angle lens and this typically means that more things will be in focus, you’re seeing a greater space and everything’s sort of there in front of you.

For me personally when it comes to photography I like to shooting things that are very grand like a mountain range, with a telephoto lens; typically, you shoot it with a wide angle lens, and you will be able to see everything, it’s really nice, it’s all in focus and it’s all there, but when you use a telephoto lens, and you stepped a little bit farther back, you’re able to see the details and have some things fall out of focus which gives you a great creative photo.

As you can see focus is kind of creative process, and really deciding what will be in focus, how falls out of focus is where you become a photographer and get to decide what your images will look like

Now after that, we’ve gone over focus and what it’s and some of the things that affect it, we are going to talk about autofocus and manual focus, the two ways that you can use to achieve a nice clean image.

A. How To Getting into focus using the auto-focus mode:

Autofocus is less your camera’s ability to sense what is in focus and upon pointing it at your subject it automatically finds that focus; Now there is a little bit work where you have to slightly hold down your shutter button, you will typically hear a beep which in some camera you can turn off/on, and it tells you that its found something to be in focus.

How and Where to switch between autofocus and Manual Focus:

MF AF focus setting lens

Depending on the camera’s there is many different ways that can be applied or used or even settings that you can choose how you want to use your autofocus. Typically, on most cameras, where you’ll find the autofocus or manual focus selection is on the lens, it will typically say AF and MF (based on the company that made the camera lens) you just select one between the two and just like that you are on automatic or manual focus, some cameras also have this selection on the camera itself because the use older style lenses, but typically today you find them on the lens.

Once you are in automatic focus, there’s a couple of factors that come into where it’s automatically going to focus, where do you tell it to focus or where does a camera assume you want things to be in focus; So the cameras like Cabon 5D mark, have 61 points across your frame that are constantly serve to search in figuring out is this thing that supposed to be focus, typically it will be whatever is closes to you compared to everything else which is farther away.

focus box and points

You are also able to go into the menu settings and select manually how many points of focus you want, or if you want the camera to focus just in a specific box, and when you take a photo, whatever is in that point or box is going to be in focus.

This camera technology is being advanced every single day. Certain cameras are faster certain cameras are slower, and it takes a higher end camera to get really fast and really sharp autofocusing capabilities.

While cameras as DSLR allows you to use whether the autofocus or manual focus, a lot of the times on point-and-shoot cameras or even smartphones the focusing capabilities becomes a little bit simplified. And it’s not to say that’s always the automatic focus, a lot of time it is but there are new technologies and face detection or being able to touch on the screen and select where you want things to be in focus.

There’s also semi-manual auto features that you can do on some point-and-shoots that are actually pretty fast. And the hardest thing is that the computer guessing what you want to be in focus, and at the end of manual focus is really where the creative eye comes into play and really honing in what you want to be in focus.

But as of now, DSLR cameras own a technology that is pretty incredible, what you can do with automatic focus is amazing, super quick, so if you are in sports games or you try to catch something on the fly, just put the proper auto setting, and you will get a very clean and focused images every single time.

B. How To Getting into focus using the manual mode:

Now, we will see manual focus, and this is really one of the great features of DSLR cameras, where you are able to choose what you want to be in focus.

 Switch the button in the lens to MF, and from there as you hold the shutter button down, nothing is going to happen, so you have to use the ring in the lens, and found out what is in focus and how far away it is.

camera lens reading of meters and feet

Most lenses will have a reading of meters and feet, so if your subject is 5 feet away from you, turn the ring in the lens to 5 feet and look in and well you know it’s in focus; This is something that takes a lot of time and sort of a real skill set that is not the easiest thing to learn.

One technique that I’ve adopted is a mixture between autofocus and manual focus, where I go and find my subject and see how far away it is, use the autofocus function, and from there I honing with the manual focus to really decide what I want to be in focus. Or sometimes I will just get distance reading of, like “that is that far away and that’s that far away” and from there I know where my safe zone is for focusing.

Some cameras allow you to do auto manual automatically so you don’t have to actually switch between the two, and you can go in, find your focus and then maybe you want to be a little bit closer or a little bit farther away.

It is highly recommended testing focusing on a telephoto lens (something larger than 50mm), because when you are in a wide angle it’s harder to tell what’s in focus because more or less everything looks semi in focus, but as you go to those longer focal lengths you will be able to really select out and pinpoint exact thing that you want to be in focus.

Another great way is to get really up close and personal with things and sort of role you're focusing over it and you can see the focus plane moving, and get some really cool shots that way.

Remember, auto is sort of mechanical, it’s the computer, it’s how fast is your camera at capturing it, while the manual is really just knowing how far away something is, measuring it out and then checking if it’s in focus. So keep practice and happy shooting.

C. Shooting a fast object:

shooting fast object prper setting

Now that we’ve seen about how to expose your image and how to get things in focus, we’re going to see about a couple of scenarios of how to put these really to use.

The first thing is shooting fast objects and what it takes to get them in focus but also exposed correctly; So typically when shooting fast objects, you really want to Use:

1. Very fast shutter speed: 

This allows you to capture the exact moment that object moved past you, so if the shutter is too slow, the object will move faster than your camera is able to process, and you will get a blurred image.

2. Slower F-Stop: 

Stop it down a little bit, maybe at f/8 or f/5.6 because what this gives you is as a wider depth of field and more of the chance to capture what you’re trying to take a picture of in focus.

3. Need more Light: 

One issue that does come up a lot of times in shooting fast objects is that first your shutter moving really fast, and you’ve decided to stop in your f-stop, meaning you need a lot more light, but if you think about it, most times you look at football game, basketball game, extreme sports outdoors, they always have a lot of light, they’re always illuminated very brightly, and this part is for the athletes, so they can see the ball and they can see what’s happening, but it also allows the photographers and for the film makers to get an image that you can see.

Light is always what needed to be in photography, so maybe you will need to make the shutter speed a little slower, and the f-stop a little bit more open, and the best thing you can do is practice, take a couple of test shots and see what you’re able to come away with.

In the next lesson, we will talking more about how to shooting in low light condition.
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Digital & Film photography History - Understand the Basics of Photography

history of photography with some Basics

1. How does a camera work?

In this article, we will talk about how the camera actually works. And I think this is a really important lesson to learn and the starting point for the rest of this photography course.

It is important to start with film camera, because that’s where photography all started, so if you look at the photo above, you can see that you have the lens, where you have a way to control the amount of light entering, Above you have two sets for Shutter Speed and ISO Rating, and then the photo button, for unlock the magic of this tool and take pictures.

The important thing to understand about FILM camera is that in the back of it there are no electronics, but you have a piece of film going across, and you control the amount of light that enter into it through the lens using the shutter speed and the F-Stop; basically you control how much light hits the film, and the film itself is actually a light-sensitive source.

What make films really interesting is that this piece of films are actually a bunch of crystals, and those crystals are sensitive to light, actually they react when they are exposed to light, and whatever comes in it burned onto them and then saved for later; And you have to go through a whole chemical process to keep that exposed image on your film, and that ultimately what would create a negative out of and what you would go and print a photo form.

FILM photography is a different world than Digital photography, but it is very important to understand how photography work, and how much light is important, so you have some apparatus that controls the amount of light entering and then you have a plane or a piece of film that reacts to that light and stores the image.

Digital photography is very similar to film in the sense that you have a lens, you have the shutter, these things are controlling the amount of light, you also have the ISO Rating, but instead of having a piece of film back in the camera, you have a digital sensor, and that digital sensor read how much light is coming in. Now it’s still reacting to light, it’s just instead of physical-chemical process, you have a computer processing that image.

You can clearly see in the last few years how far that technology’s come because you’re able to capture pretty stunning images through digital photography, and a lot of traditionalists will say that film was always superior to digital, just because of the quality and the real chemical process that film goes through is considered just as high quality.

Digital has come along way, and most people can’t even tell the difference, but a lot of great photographers were a real artist because they weren’t using digital where you can't change so much after the fact. They were shooting a film and it was a whole process going into the dark room and exposing your film and the possibility that if you screwed up along the way, you lost everything, you lost all of your images. And sure that is possible in the digital world, maybe you drop your memory card, water gets on your camera, but it’s a lot more difficult nowadays to lose your images than the guys who were dealing with big old film cameras.

Another big difference is that all film cameras have different amount of crystals in the film, and that would determine an ISO Rating, while the digital sensor can read millions of pixels (1 & 0 that are creating the image you’re looking at), and how that ship or how that sensor reads light will make a huge difference in your photography, this is constantly changing, this is something really exciting when talking about what some full frame sensors are able to do nowadays.

But a lot of people will still say that film was able to do a lot more and there’s just a different quality to film photography over digital.

2. Inside the Film & Digital Camera: Shutter & sensors 

Now that we’ve gone over some of the types of cameras out there, let’s dive into the camera itself.

We are not going to be talking so much about the lens right now, but more so what’s “inside this camera”, so we will cover what you can found in both cameras film and digital which is the shutter and the sensor.

The shutter is a key part in controlling the amount of light that comes through your lens and hits your sensor, and ultimately what it is doing, is moving up and down very quickly and that’s establishing how much light is allowed in to expose on your film or sensor; In some cameras you go up to 1000 of a second exposure and its ultra-fast.

The sensor or film frame is how much light you can capture based on the size of the sensor you have; So there is a really big difference here because when you looking at something like 70mm VS 35mm VS 16mm VS 8mm film you can see the size difference. And that the same thing when you go into digital photography, you have a full frame sensor VS APS-C VS Mirco four thirds; all these sensors allow you to capture light but each has its own limitation; So a full frame sensor camera is going to be able to capture a lot more light than a smaller micro 4/3, just because it’s large.

camera sensor sizes table

It is important to understand what inside your camera because this will affect how you control light, what type of camera lenses you put on your camera.

There are many things that going around the camera in terms of different setting, and all that type of stuff, but when you talk about what’s inside the camera, so those are some key parts to focus on, so now after we understand what is inside the camera, let’s talk about what we will get from that camera.

3. File Formats – RAW VS JPEG

We’ve seen the different camera types and what’s going inside the camera (shutter, sensor), now I want to tell you a little about what happens next and file formats, how is that picture actually saved.

There is a couple of factors which file formats you would choose to save to, one of them is RAW, and this is introducing some fairly complex things because RAW is uncompressed, and really when you think of file formats you need to think about compression, because this is going to be how is the computer inside your camera changing the image that you’re taking, because what uncompressed means is that all the data that the sensor’s ability to save is being in a very big file.

Typically the reason that you would choose RAW is that you want to do some color correcting or maybe you want to zoom in a little bit on the image you’ve taken. You will have a lot more information when using RAW.

JPEG is a file that is more compressed, you’ll be able to take a lot more photos because it doesn’t take up as much space on your memory card, but you also lose some information, your shadows and your highlights, which means that you are going to have just less space to work with.

When I use RAW and when I use JPEG formats:

I want to introduce you to RAW VS JPEG compression and how that affects your images; So when talking about  file formats, typically you’re talking about RAW and JPEG, the main difference is being that RAW takes up more space, JPEG takes up less space, so when you travelling maybe you want to take more JPEG images, but ultimately if you want to be doing  some of that tweaking in post you’ll need that RAW images just because there’s so much data there.

There is a lot of information when it comes to photography whether it’s how the camera works, how it is saving the files and what you do whit those files.

Lossless data Smaller size
Higher dynamic range higher contrast, sharper, lower dynamic range
lower contrast Ready to print, post, share
Not as sharp Not as editable
Needs processing X


RAW image get edited

With a Raw file and Adobe Lightroom, you can boost the shadow, because you have all the information just as if you are on the scene and taking another version of the photo again and again.

You can go from a very bad overexposed photo RAW version, to a somehow usable photo.

In the Next lesson we will cover everything about Focus (AF,MF), how to understand it right, use it right, and unlock your creativity to make a stunning photos.